History in the Crossfire: Kosovo’s Endangered Monasteries

IMG_2418.JPG

We could see it coming up the road, a simple but radiant structure in pink and white stone that glowed in spite of the rain. The church of the ancient monastery nestled into the base of a mist-topped green mountain, its cultivated fields and vineyards, still producing sustenance after seven hundred years, spread around it down the slope of the hill like a lady’s skirt in variegated patterns. Decani Visoki looks the very picture you’d expect of an active monastery: tidy, quiet, and prosperous.

Until you come to the KFOR barrier gate, draped in camouflage and topped with barbed wire, where incoming vehicles must state their purpose, surrender their passports, and submit to a search if the guards armed with AK-47s think it’s necessary.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Such is the protection required for Kosovo’s only UNESCO site, the Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (actually four separate sites spread across the country, but grouped under the same listing). The trouble is that the monasteries are tiny islands of medieval Serbian Orthodoxy nestled among a sea of Albanian Islam, and such beautiful and potent symbols of the resented old regime that they can’t help becoming targets – in this part of the world, memories don’t have to be long to remember violence and genocide. It seems that most Serbian sites require this kind of protection, even from the visiting public – Gizmestan Tower, the intensely Serbo-nationalistic monument to the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, also required me to surrender my passport to an armed guard before entering the tower’s barricaded enclosure. And the protection is warranted – in 2004 some isolated tit-for-tat violence between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo escalated into a nationwide orgy of anti-Serb violence which, in addition to costing thousands of lives, also resulted in the deliberate burning and bombing of Serbian churches and heritage sites.

img_4972

Another medieval UNESCO church in Gjakova, southern Kosovo – closed to the public.

As recently as a year ago, Islamic extremists were arrested trying to pass a truck full of weapons through this very same barrier to the Decani Monastery that I passed through, and there have been incidents of ISIS and other extremist hate-graffiti appearing on the ancient stone walls. 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The world is becoming a scary place, and the fact that heritage sites are at the epicentre of conflict just shows that history is anything but past. In Gjakova, the site of another of the UNESCO monasteries, Serbian worshippers were prevented from entering a church on Christmas Eve by Albanian protesters who stoned their bus. Not half a mile outside the Decani Monastery’s gates, the citizens of Decan are right now protesting a recent ruling that favored the monastery, in a conflict over some disputed land rights with the town. Kosovo’s recent bid to join UNESCO was an important effort to use heritage as a platform for increasing recognition of its statehood. But the rejection of Kosovo by the committee elicited relief from Serbs who feared for the fate of their monuments under a potentially hostile Albanian-dominated government.

But walking through the gates of the monastery, one can leave all the madness behind. It was quiet, we were the only group visiting and we had to wait for the monks to finished lunch before a lay brother could give us a guided tour of the church. Photos are disallowed, perhaps for copyright purposes or to protect the sense of seclusion, but photos would not have done justice to what we saw.

decani.jpg

The exterior is luminous, and the carvings as crisp as if they’d been executed yesterday. Other than a recent cleaning of the stone, our guide was uncertain what conservation had been done to the outside. It’s possible the carved decoration has been restored, but considering how little restoration (or even maintenance) we saw elsewhere in the region, I’d say it’s unlikely, which means that the beauty of the stone has been preserved magnificently unaltered for seven centuries.

img_4838

It was the interior that was truly breathtaking though, and pictures wouldn’t begin to do it justice. To modern eyes accustomed to bright colors and poppy graphics, medieval frescoes probably seem like a pretty lame medium, as their colors tend to be more muted than those of other medieval art. And the frescoes that entirely cover the walls of Decani monastery are at a particular disadvantage because they have not been cleaned or conserved, and so are dulled by the smoke and dirt of centuries. But photos, as usual, can’t convey the spirit of the place, which is what makes it so powerful. Delicate but strong stone columns frame the entryway, or narthex, footed with roaring beasts and depictions of sin and salvation.

decani3

Trampling the enemies of medieval Serbia…

As soon as you walk in, you are struck with the weight of seven centuries that have had time to gather and mature here, between walls whose images of kings and saints – a visual chronicle of Serbian history – soar upward until they’re lost in the shadows of the ceiling.

The UNESCO monasteries were built by monarchs so enshrined in epic and history that they were canonized in their own eras, each king of the Nemajic line entering sainthood upon his death. One of these king-saints, Stefan Decanski, the patron of the monastery, rests just next to the altar, where his tomb is opened every Thursday so that worshipers can view (and kiss!) his embalmed body, miraculously uncorrupted after seven centuries.

decani2

The tombs of the Serbian saint-kings, their bodies displayed to worshippers once per week. The wall paintings are a genealogical record of the dynasty.

But I don’t think its the beauty of the frescoes that make the Decani monastery so special, but rather what they represent. The physical survival of the mural paintings alone is remarkable – the world has a very limited supply of frescoes that old and that intact. But this monastery in particular sits in a region that has seldom known peace since the medieval period. The monastery has stood like a rock while different tribes and empires and regimes have swept over the region, bringing their own religions, prejudices, and political agendas. Under the Yugoslav state, communists attempted to void traditional religious sites by chipping out the eyes of statues and painted figures, disfigurement that was still obvious at several sites we saw. The medieval heritage sites of Kosovo have had more than their share of volatility to contend with, and their very survival is humbling and awesome.

And all it would take is one factional, sectarian idiot with a bomb to blot it out forever. Building is the work of heroes, but destruction takes just a coward’s second.

Advertisements

Ravenna – The most beautiful mosaics in the world

The title pretty much says it all: In Ravenna (just off the eastern coast), you will find the greatest concentration of collectively the most beautiful mosaics in the world, IMHO. I’m surprised and sad that Ravenna’s tourism is less than flourishing – I was literally the only guest in my hostel – but I guess it just means I’ve found Italy’s hidden gem (and really, the quiet in Ravenna was so necessary after the hordes in Florence).

Ravenna in a nutshell: In 402 AD Ravenna became the capital of the Western Roman Empire (this is post-Constantine, so the empire had already been split into two halves, Eastern (Byzantine) and Western), and remained the capital until the final collapse of the Roman Empire in 476. The seat of power was located in Ravenna just long enough for lots of building and construction to take place – and remember too that by this time Christianity was already the official religion of the empire, so they’re not building temples in Ravenna, they’re building churches.

People don’t give Early Christianity much credit, artistically. The basilicas are large, inelegant things designed only to hold as many people as possible, and the imagery doesn’t yet have those story-tropes that developed during the Middle Ages and feature so prominently in Renaissance art.

But the one thing that Early Christians did well was decorate the crap out of churches and tombs – with mosaics.

If you’ve ever taken a European history class or an art history class, you’ve probably seen these two images:

These two panels face each other across the altar of the Basilica of San Vitale. The first is of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (most famous for rewriting and codifying the laws, and for having built the Hagia Sophia), and the second is of his wife, the Empress Theodora (most famous for having been an actress and prostitute before marrying the Emperor). But besides housing these two super-famous pieces of art, San Vitale was 1000% percent worth the visit, because the entire altar is encrusted with more of these gorgeous, vibrant, and colorful mosaics.

More pretty pictures from San Vitale:

(Please do click on the pictures so you can see the large, high-quality versions!)

An overall view of the altar from the nave. You can *just* make out the Justinian and Theodora mosaics in the panels to the left and right of the bottom row of windows.

An image of heaven in the apse above the altar.

To the right of the altar – I love that this shows how sophisticated the narrative scenes are (in the lower half), as well as the beautiful carpet-like decorations that entirely cover the walls and ceiling.

As you can see, the artist used a LOT of gold in the decoration, but the best part is that because of the unevenness of the mosaic surface, the gold glitters and sparkles so spectacularly. I tried to get a picture of it:

You can see in this in detail – look above and below the central angel to see the shimmering gold!

Another example of glittering mosaics, from the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (a Roman Empress, buried next door to San Vitale)

Also in Ravenna, completely worth saying you’ve seen it, Dante’s tomb:

There’s a monument to him in Santa Croce in Florence, but don’t be fooled – he’s really right here in Ravenna!

So basically, if you ever get the chance, don’t pass up a side trip to Ravenna – all these things, Sant’Appolinare Nuovo, San Vitale, the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, the Mausoleum of Theodoric, and Dante’s Tomb are easily done in one afternoon. Definitely my favorite day of sightseeing so far!